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AP Resources - Chapter 2/Chemistry Outline

Matte

 

Atom

 

Atomic Theory

 

Fundamental Structure of Atoms

 

Nucleus of an atom

 

#of protons in nucleus = the

 

Protons

 

Electrons

 

Neutrons

 

Atomic Mass

 

AMU

 

Orbital=Energy levels

1st_______________________________________

2nd______________________________________

3rd______________________________________

 

Valence Orbital

 

Dictates

 

Octet Rule

 

Orbital Shapes

  

There are __________________________naturally known to man

Others are manmade

 

Element

 

Atom

 

Building block of an element

 

Molecule

 

Compound

 

Simplest form of matter

 

PROTONS=ELECTRONS

 

Bonds

 

Ionic Bond

Ion

Cation

Anion

Electrolytes

 

Oxidation Reduction Reaction

 

Metabolism

 

Catabolism- _________________ reaction; 

 

Anabolism-__________________reaction; 

 

Organic molecules have a ___________________ framework

 

Exceptions are______________ and _________=inorganic molecules along with all other molecules with out a carbon framework

Polymer

 

Moiety

 

Macromolecules

 

Carbohydrates (suffix= OSE)

 

(CHO)

a. ___________=simplest form of carbohydrate; building block of __________________

i.

ii.

iii.

Structural Isomer

 

b. _________=2__ chemically bonded together

i.

ii.

iii.

 

****Glycoside linkage***

c. _________________=3 or more_____ bonded together by ____

i.

ii.

iii.

 

Alpha 1 4

 

Beta 1 4

The digestive system can not absorb anything larger than a ________________


Suffix ASE=______________________

 

Lipids

 

d. Triglycerides

 

Building block of triglycerides

 

e. Steroids

 

Hormone

 

f. Phospholipid

 

Hydrophyllic

 

Hydrophobic

 

Amphephyllic

 

Building block of cell membranes

 

g. Prostaglandins

 

******key player in ____________*********

 

Inflammation is the body’s response to____

 

5 signs

 

Proteins

Building block of proteins=____________

 

______standard Amino Acids (natural)

______can be synthesized by our body

______can not=have to be eaten through our diet = _____________

 

Peptide bond

 

Protein=_________or more

 

******3 DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN IS CRITICAL TO ITS FUNCTION! WORK IN A LOCK AND KEY FASHION******

 

4 Structures

 

primary structure

 

***very few can operate in the primary structure***

 

Secondary Structure

 

Tertiary structure

 

Bonds

 

Quaternary structure

 

What can alter the shape of a protein? Altering a protein will __________ causing it to be ____________

 

 

 

Conjucation

Enzyme

 

Cofactors/Coenzymes

 

Energy

 

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 

 

ADP + Pi <-> ATP

 

Nucleic Acids

 

Nucleotides

 

Nitrogen Bases

 

Two types of Nucleic Acids

 

DNA

 

RNA

 

Complementary Base pairing

 

DNA

 

RNA

 

Histone Proteins

 

Chromosomes

 

Genes