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AP Resources - Lymphatic System Outline

Lymphatic and immune system are kind of one in the same, linked together

 

Immunity- key job of lymphatic system

 

3 jobs of lymphatic

 

Microorganisms—use body for shelter and nutrition causing sickness and death

 

Immune system---2 types of immunity

 

innate

 

adaptive

 

Pieces that make up lymphatic

 

Jobs of lymphatic system

 

Fluid balance

 

Lymph vessel

 

Fat absorption

 

Defense

 

Lymph nodes---3 superficial aggregations

 

-Swell up when you get sick-

 

FLOW OF LYMPH

 

· nodes are placed along the pathway of lymph

 

All lymph will have to pass thru one of these on way back to blood

 

Afferent

Efferent

 

---Inside lymph node—specialized type of connective tissue---protein fibers reticular fibers

 

Lymph nodule—aggregations of lymphocyte (produce antibodies and other immune substances)

 

-----Watch lymph pass by and if there is Micro Organism they will reach out and grab it

 

----spaces between lymph nodules=sinuses

 

lymphocytes>rapid cell division, causing lymph node to swell up—carry lymph back down to one of the nodes----

 

On right side of head, thoracic cavity and arm---right lymphatic duct> right subclavain vein

 

All the rest drains into the---thoracic duct> L. subclavian vein

 

All fluid pushed out will be drawn back in by colloidal osmotic pressure or be returned to blood at subclavian vein

 

Other lymphatic tissue

 

Tonsils---3 types

 

i. pharyngeal tonsils

 

ii. palentine tonsils

 

iii. inguinal tonsils

 

***infectious agent get in body by eating drinking, or even breathing air***

 

--When Micro Organisms come in contact with lymphocytes---they undergo rapid mitotic division causing swelling in nodes---

Spleen

 

2 types of tissue

 

white pulp

 

red pulp

 

-----within the walls of the spleen>smooth muscle (holds about 1.5 cup of blood)

When body goes into shock, spleen will contract forcing out the extra blood in an attempt to keep the B/P from dropping

 

3. Thymus gland

 

****3 major classes of Lymphocytes

 

All are formed in the Red Bone Marrow, and NK and B-cells mature here

 

Immunity

 

2 types

 

Innate Immunity

 

Activation products of compliment cascade:

 

phagocytosis

 

cellular lysis

 

inflammation

 

Antibody

 

Interferon

 

Antiviral protein - prevents infection of other cells

 

Cells in innate immunity

 

macrophages

 

mast cells

 

basophils

 

eosinophils

 

 

Inflammation can be local or systemic

 

2. Adaptive immunity

 

Key players in process of Adaptive Immunity---

 

a. Primary function---activate B-cells and other T-cells

b. ---reason immune system does go after own antigens

c. 

 

Lymphocytes exist as discreet clones—receptors on surface of lymphocyte is very specific for particular type of antigen

 

--population of individual lymphocytes capable of responding to every known antigen—

 

---a virus has multiple different antigen sites (on an individual MICROORGANSIM)

 

---Receptors on receptors on surface of lymphocyte---operate in lock and key fashion with antigens---

 

All lymphocytes that have identical receptors are----CLONE

 

· we have ( very small in #) clone of lymphocytes capable of responding to every known antigen

 

---also have capability of responding to your own host antigens except during prenatal stages( fetal)

 

2 basic types of adaptive immunity---

 

humeral( antibody mediated

 

immunity)

 

cell mediated immunity

 

3-part process for B-cells (humeral) to start producing antibodies:

 

1.

2.

3.

 

processing/presentation

 

MHC---2 types---MHC1—found in all cells in the body and MHC2---only appears on antigen presented cells

activate helper T-cells

 

activate B-cell

 

5 different types of immunoglobins

 

****GAMED******

 

----Primary response---

 

-----Secondary response----

 

Adaptive---Cytotoxic T-cells (cell mediated)

  • all other cells in body produce MHC 1—takes own protein and incorporates it on the surface of the cell
  • if it is a self protein—immune system will leave alone
  • if virus injects itself into cell---fundamentally changes protein produced y that cell===MHC 1 and foreign protein attached to outside

Processes of Cytotoxic T-cells killing

 

1. perforin garanzyme---2 part 1) leak perforin punching hole in cell---cytoplasm leaks 2) leaves chem. Garanzyme causing apoptosis( programmed cell death)

 

2. FAS/ FASL---receptor that infects cells in body ( cancer cell)

 

· together will do 2 things

 

activates colitic enzymes within cell

 

produces nuclease—breaks down nucleic acid in cell

 

Aquired adaptive Immunity

 

Active immunity

 

Passive immunity

 

ACTIVE

 

Active artificial

 

Passive

 

Passive natural

 

Passive artificial